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Prognathism: Types, Causes and Treatment


Does your or any of your family member’s jaw seem off-balance? One of the upper or lower jaws is protruding? It is probably due to Prognathism. It is a dental abnormality. Because of Prognathism, teeth don’t fit together correctly. And regular functions like eating and talking becomes challenging. An orthodontist can identify the causes of Prognathism and can treat it accordingly.

We are explaining here the types, causes, and various treatment methods of Prognathism.

Related Post: Types of Malocclusions and How Orthodontic Treatment Helps

Types of Prognathism

There are 3 types of Prognathism based on upper or lower jaw sticking out.

  1. Mandibular Prognathism (Underbite)

  2. Maxillary Prognathism (Overbite)

  3. Bimaxillary Prognathism

Let’s understand the difference between these types of Prognathism with the help of a table:-

Mandibular Prognathism Maxillary Prognathism Bimaxillary Prognathism
The lower jaw is known as the mandible. If the mandible protrudes out of the face, it is Mandibular Prognathism. The upper jaw is known as the maxilla. If the maxilla protrudes out of the face, it is Maxillary Prognathism. Its other name is Alveolar Prognathism. When both upper and lower jaws protrude out of the face, it is Bimaxillary Prognathism.

Causes & Treatment of Prognathism

Here we will explain 4 causes of Prognathism and their treatment:

  • Acrodysostosis

It is an extremely rare congenital bone condition. This condition affects bone growth adversely. Anyone suffering from this condition ends up with shorter body parts. They may have short arms, legs, nose and upper jaw. It may cause hearing loss and other physical deformities.

Treatment options for Acrodysostosis are nutrition supplements or surgery if the condition permits. Your health care provider will suggest a suitable treatment option according to the severity of your jaw misalignment.

  • Acromegaly

In Acromegaly body generates an extra amount of growth hormone due to a tumour. This causes the tissues to enlarge. Thus your lower jaw also grows extensively, causing Mandibular Prognathism. This is a rare condition affecting 60 people in 1 million people.

It can be treated by prescribed medicine to control the tumour’s growth or corrective jaw surgery to remove it. The orthodontist can also shrink the tumour through radiation.

  • Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome

This syndrome is hereditary. It is also a rare condition affecting 1 person in 31000 people. Basal cell nevus syndrome adversely influences facial structure growth. It can cause a Prognathism, abnormally broad nose, far-apart eyes, and unusually shaped brows.

Your doctor will examine your impacted body’s part and will prescribe treatment. Surgery is the only treatment option if you develop skin cancer caused due to basal cell nevus syndrome.

  • Genetic Disorders

Genetic disorders like Down and Crouzon syndrome can cause Prognathism. Premature fusion of skull bones happens during Crouzon syndrome. And Down syndrome makes an extra chromosome affecting the body’s formation. Both these condition causes excessive growth of the jaw.

Genetic disorders are generally detected and acted upon in childhood only. If the condition is treatable, doctors can perform surgery. But Down syndrome can’t be treated. It can only be managed with therapies like speech therapy and intellectual counselling by a support group. These therapies also cure the disorders in the initial stage and minor genetic diseases.


Treatment of Pragnathism will require patience and diligence from your side. Multiple treatment types may be needed to run simultaneously on your jaw, like medications and jaw correcting surgery. Sometimes dentists need to perform the procedure on your teeth also to rectify their position.

Do you doubt that you, your child or any of your family member is suffering from Prognathism? Contact Thurman Orthodontics now to book your dental consultation and check-up with our team of expert dental surgeons and orthodontists.

You are just one call away from a perfect, beautiful and healthy smile!

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